Tuesday, September 14, 2010

Three Analyses from Schubert's Winterreise

“Letzte Hoffnung”

In Schubert's “Letzte Hoffnung” many musical elements contribute to a sense of instability, fragility, apprehension, and fear of the wanderer. Of particular interest is the ambiguous meter (in the introduction), chromaticism, descending vocal lines of increasing, expanding intervals, rhythmic augmentation and diminution and dynamic contrast. More generally, modal mixture and ambiguous harmony contribute to the mood of this piece. The following illustrates these points and shows how the music emphasizes the meaning of the Müller's text.

Concerning meter, the introduction to “Letzte Hoffnung” sets the stage for what can be expected throughout the song. The first note of the song begins on an upbeat (C-flat). This simple act affects the introduction as a whole, giving the listener a sense that he/she is untethered. It is appropriate also because it contributes to the aimless wandering and the “lost in thought” mental state of the narrator. Also, the “falling” nature of this introduction is stated again and again throughout the song and is possibly the most striking example of text painting in the song.

Chromaticism is an important element in this song. As stated above, the first note is a chromatic C-flat. These opening measures contradict the “expected” harmony that is implied by the key signature. D fully-diminished seventh chords are the primary harmony in the introduction and the only sense of the actual key (E-flat major) is found at the fermata in m. 4. As is revealed later in the song, this brief pause is actually a half cadence on B-flat major. Without a score to study, this half cadence would likely go unnoticed, as its function is obscured by the preceding chromaticism. Other noteworthy moments of chromaticism include the F-sharps in m. 12 and the French augmented-sixths in mm. 22-23.

The F-sharps in m. 12 are the first time in the song in which all of the sounding voices are in unison and octaves. Barring the solitary F-sharp in m. 8, it is also the first time that this pitch appears. In addition, this measure is the first to relax the rhythmic momentum. Up until, and immediately after m. 12 the rhythm is active and moving quickly. Since m. 12 is emphasized in two ways some significance must be applied to this pitch. In analyzing the text at this moment, it becomes clear why Schubert is drawing so much attention to this measure. “I often stand lost in thought” is accentuated through rhythmic augmentation (Schubert “puts on the brakes,” the wanderer is no longer walking, he is simply standing and thinking) and a thinned out texture (the emphasis and intensity of these bare octaves represent a moment of clarity in the wanderers thinking).

A similar effect is created in mm. 22-23, although here the rhythmic figure is a diminution, not an augmentation. The first presentation of the right-hand in m. 22 features vertically aligned dyads (B-flat/F and A/F). The second statement of this figure (m. 23) is presented as broken chords and the rhythmic values are halved. Both of these compositional techniques are combined to emphasize the powerful meaning of the text (“I tremble violently”). The French-augmented sixth chords of m. 22 indicate the wanderer's increased level of panic, while the broken chords in the right hand (m. 23) represent the literal trembling (quasi-tremolo effect) of the leaf on the tree and the wanderer himself.

The wanderer goes through many states of mind in this song. Simple anxiety turns to fear, which in turn leads to panic, and finally grief upon the arrival of the final couplet. Descending intervallic leaps in the vocal line illustrate the concept of fear becoming a realization of dashed hopes. Measure 26 contains the largest vocal descending leap up to that point (a major-sixth from E-flat to G-flat). This is quickly followed by a descending leap of an octave in m. 27. It is no coincidence that these vocal figures occur where they do. This is the precise moment in the piece when the wanderer realizes that his fate in dependent (albeit a delusion) on one single leaf on the tree. If the leaf falls, all hope will be lost. There is never a definitive confirmation that the leaf did indeed fall to the ground. It is implied however because upon the arrival of mm. 32-33, the wanderer “fall[s] to the ground and weep[s].” It is at this moment that the descending vocal line reaches the widest interval in the song (a major-thirteenth from G-flat to C-flat). The descending intervals found in mm. 26-27 foreshadow the falling hopes of the wanderer. The initial vocal descending leaps (falling leaf) occur quickly with no notes “filling in” the descent. The same can not be said of the final descent which represents the wanderer's lost hope. This final statement of the descent spans two measures and is filled in with passing tones. The “drawn out” nature of this descent, made even more powerful by the shorter descents heard in the previous measures, captures perfectly the slow, agonizing torture that the wanderer in experiencing. Finally, a quasi-lamento bass is found in these measures only, driving home the idea of unfathomable sadness.

The notion of prolongation in the vocal line can also be applied to other areas of the song. As stated above, the F-sharps in m. 12 represent a moment of repose, or reflection, as the wanderer stands (not walks) lost I thought. A very similar phenomenon occurs in m. 35, immediately following the confirmation of lost hope. The lamento bass figure reaches its destination here and the accompanimental rhythm is drastically altered (aside from m. 12, this is the only instance of rhythmic augmentation in the entire song). This, combined with a return to a piano dynamic marking, is the moment in the song when the wanderer is no longer fearful, but grieving. His grief is confirmed further upon the last two beats of the song where the “grief motive” (although hidden in an inner voice) is combined with an “amen” cadence (IV – I), as if to say definitively, “all hope is lost.”

Contrast of dynamics and articulation play a large role in the dramatic effect of this song (interpreted very convincingly on the Peter Pears/Benjamin Britten recording). Pianissimo coupled with Pears' vocal inflection in the opening measures represents the wanderer's first stage of anxiety. The quasi-recitative of the third vocal phrase (mm. 14-22) indicates the wanderer's increased anxiety and sets the stage for the fear and panic to come. The arrival of the forte dynamic at m. 32 reveals emphatically that the wanderer's hopes are dashed. This is followed by the grief stricken piano dynamic at m. 35. It is at this point that the wanderer is resigned to his fate. He will no longer resist his grief. Finally, in m. 42, there is a “three-pronged” approach that clearly confirms the wanderer's grief: 1) Schubert's inclusion of the grief motive, 2) Peter Pears' highly inflected vocal delivery, and 3) the downbeat of m. 43 reveals the strongest instance of V – I heard thus far. This cadence is meant to solidify the notion that the wanderer will always be grieved.

Melodic permutations pervade the entire song. There is an overriding “third motive” that is transformed in various ways. This idea of consecutive thirds is presented in the first two notes of the song. In fact, the majority of this “falling leaf” introduction is nothing but thirds. The first entry of the vocal line continues what the piano accompaniment started (C-flat – A-flat – C-flat). The first two vocal phrases adhere to this descending third idea. The entry of the quasi-recitative in m. 14 is the first permutation of the melody. Here the interval is that of an ascending third. This ascending third idea is broken again upon the arrival of m. 26. The ascending third becomes an ascending perfect fourth. Measure 39 transforms the ascending fourth into an ascending sixth and finally, in m. 42 the ascent spans the interval of a tritone in order to facilitate the following grief motive. Altering the intervallic content by gradual expansion is one more way in which Schubert is able to take the listener on a journey from anxiety to fear to increased panic to terror and ultimately to grief. Finally, it is not a surprise that these vocal transformations arrive, in the last two measures of the vocal line at the grief motive.

In addition to the above instances of text painting, the relationship of text to music is particularly interesting at mm. 14-15, at the beginning of the recitative section. The text, “staring at a single leaf” is represented in the vocal line by the repeated B-natural. At no other moment in the song does a note repeat itself so often (six times). The text painting is obvious here; the wanderer simultaneously stares at a single leaf and sings a single note.

“Der Wegweiser”

In “Der Wegweiser,” the wanderer has begun to question why he is traveling. An unknown pressure drives him onward and this idea is reflected in the music. Other actions and thoughts of the wanderer are present including his walking, restlessness, hesitancy, hopelessness and fear. The following illustrates how these emotions and actions are expressed musically.

This song, probably more than any other in the cycle, deals with the seemingly aimless wandering of the narrator. The “walking motive” in this song is even more prominent than was heard in previous songs (e.g. Gute Nacht and Auf dem Flusse). Excluding mm. 28-32 the walking motive is present, in one form or another, throughout the entire song (note the alteration of the walking motive in mm. 16-19. “Snowy, rocky heights” are embodied in these ascending dotted-sixteenth/thirty-second note figures). The omission of the walking motive in mm. 28-32 is not a random event. There is a very reasonable explanation for it, which will be described next.

As was the case in “Letzte Hoffnung,” a thinned out texture and simplified harmony represent a moment of repose on the part of the wanderer. Furthermore, the rhythmic momentum in “Letzte Hoffnung” is interrupted as the wanderer stops and thinks. This is paralleled in “Der Wegweiser” as he, once again, stops to question “what foolish desire drives me into the wilderness?” After questioning himself, the walking (and walking motive) resumes. This is an important point of continuity in the cycle. Since the walking motive is a thread that runs through the majority of the songs, it is interesting to note when and why it is present or absent. It can be understood, particularly in the case of “Letzte Hoffnung” and “Der Wegweiser,” that the disappearance of the walking motive signifies a moment of self reflection and questioned motives of the part of the wanderer.

Continuing with the idea of self reflection or questioning, the seeming extra measure (m. 5) can be viewed in a similar light. The text makes it clear that the wanderer is “shun[ning] the paths that other travelers take.” Once again he is questioning himself (“why do I shun the paths[...]”) and once again the walking motive and rhythmic momentum is interrupted. In this case the extra measure represents not only the wanderer's inward questioning but also his reluctance to take the path of other travelers. It can be viewed as a breathless pause of self reflection. The same phenomenon occurs in mm. 39-40, although this time the harmony is more striking (unresolved Ger+6). This moment will be addressed in more detail next.

The unison/octave doubling among the voice and accompaniment in mm. 28-32 is the first and only time in the song that the walking motive disappears. Following the wanderer's question, “what foolish desire drives me into the wilderness?,” his walking resumes (m. 33). There is no real sense of key in these measures. The harmony is simply two measures of B-major, two measures of B-minor, followed by a descent to B-flat in the soprano voice of the accompaniment. The arrival of B-flat signifies a return to the key of G-minor in m. 37 although without a score there is no real context to let the listener know for sure. The following chords in mm. 38-39 provide another clue that the harmony is returning to G-minor. The Ger+6 of m. 38 “belongs” to the key of G-minor. It resolves as expected to a cadential 6/4 in m. 39. Similar to the first presentation of delay in m. 5, the cadential 6/4 does not resolve to the tonic until after a short pause at the beginning of m. 40. After the wanderer's self reflection in mm. 28-32 it takes him a moment (mm. 33-39) to compose himself and “get back on track.” (m. 40).

The restlessness of the narrator is expressed most powerfully in mm. 51-54. The text/music relationship is working on three separate levels in these measures. The first is melodic. The conjunct motion and repeated vocal pitches that Schubert has set the listener up to hear goes away in these measures. Wild vocal leaps become the norm, which is characteristic of the text, “I wander on, relentlessly, restless, yet seeking rest.” It is clear that the sudden shift in vocal style is meant to express the agitation of the wanderer. The second text/music relation concerns the harmony in these measures. The beginning of this agitated vocal style is elided with a pivot-chord modulation at the last chord of m. 51. The minor dominant (v of F-minor) becomes the iv chord of the home key of G-minor. The rest that the wanderer is seeking is emphasized by two consecutive measures of cadential 6/4 chords. The prolongation of these chords and the state of mind of the wanderer are analogous. The wanderer and the harmony are both seeking rest in these measures. The latter seeks the resting place of the tonic triad which it eventually finds at the downbeat of m. 54. Finally, the third way in which the music relates to the text is, in part, an interpretational choice on the part of the performers. Peter Pears and Benjamin Britten go to great lengths in these measures to emphasize the crescendo (representative of restlessness). They are also sensitive to the piano dynamic marking at the downbeat of m. 54 (signifying a moment of rest, albeit brief).

The tension is elevated in mm. 57-64 and is released in mm. 65-67. This tension is achieved through Schubert's use of melody, harmony and dynamics. The stagnation of the melody in these measures screams for some sort of motion. Interestingly, the melodic motion that is achieved occurs vertically across several measures (mm. 57-64). Stacked in thirds, a G-diminished triad, one of the most tension filled chords at a composer's disposal, is revealed. The harmony expresses the tension filled text in a slightly more complex way. These measures are bursting with chromaticism and secondary dominant and secondary leading-tone chords. Analyzing this passage in G-minor, the downbeat of m. 57 is a viio7/V which resolves as expected to V; chromatic, but nothing too unusual. This is followed by a V7/ii at m. 59. This is where the resolutions become unexpected, and in turn, tension filled. The harmonic rhythm in this section is one chord per measure. The harmony of m. 59-64 is as follows: V7/ii - viio7/VII - iii6/4 (modal mixture) - viio6/5/VII - #iv6/4 (!) - V7/V. This unusual and unexpected chord progression is finally resolved in a predictable way at the downbeat of m. 65 when the V7/V resolves to V, progresses through i - N6 - cadential 6/4 - and finally i. The unusual spelling of the chord in m. 63 is quite mysterious. D-flat is in the vocal line and an enharmonic respelling of this pitch (C-sharp) is in the accompaniment. One possible explanation for why Schubert chose to spell the chord in this way lies in the following measure (m. 64). The C-sharp is maintained in the same voice/register in this measure becoming the third of the secondary A7 chord. In spelling m. 63 in this way, the right hand of accompaniment need only change one note, G-sharp becomes G-natural. It is likely that this spelling was used to reduce any confusion that may arise for the accompanist.

The outer-voice “pincer” motive that runs through mm. 69-75 is interesting on many levels. This is a moment of high tension in the song. Chromatic movement in the accompaniment against the static movement in the vocal line creates a sense of stress that must be released. This is of course very similar to the tension, hopelessness and fear (mm. 57-64) and the subsequent release of this tension (mm. 65-67) that was mentioned above. In that case, the tension was primarily created through dissonant chords that do not resolve as expected. The pincer motive on the other hand creates tension through chromatic, stepwise ascents and descents in the accompaniment. The chromatic motion is pitted against a static vocal line adding to its dramatic effect.

A nearly identical release of tension is found in both the harmonic progression in mm. 65-67 and the pincer motive at mm. 75-77. However, the latter approaches the chord of resolution (V6/5) in a more elegant way. The pincer motive, over the course of six measures, slowly converges upon the most dissonant members of the V6/5 chord at the downbeat of m. 75. It is only after arriving at m. 75 that the tension of the previous measures is resolved. Here we see the typical half-step resolution of the leading tone, and the chordal seventh resolving down by step. The convergence of the pincer motive upon the tritone of the dominant is one way in which Schubert is prolonging the tension. The progression in mm. 69-74 builds tension and is “released” on the most unstable interval of all, the tritone. It is only after this progression that the music can finally relax (which is made more clear by the dynamic markings of forte < > piano and pianissimo in mm. 75-77).

The concluding measures of this song can be interpreted in many ways. The first and only instance of a rhythmic augmentation in this song is found in the last measures (78-83). “Travel[ing] a road from which no one has returned” is represented by this slowed rhythm. The psychological effect produced is one of either reluctance (as was mentioned earlier by the seeming extra measures of m. 5 and 40) or acceptance of the wanderer's fate. I prefer the latter interpretation. We have already seen/heard previously in the song that the wanderer is reluctant or hesitant to walk “the paths that other travelers take.” Therefore, it is a more conclusive ending to interpret these final measures as something other than reluctance. He is resigned to his fate. He must keep walking. He is physically and mentally drained at this point in the cycle and the slowed rhythm in these final measures represent somewhat of a slow “death march” to the grave.

“Im Dorfe”

“Im Dorfe” is unique to the cycle in that it is the only one composed in 12/8 meter (although some theorists, Arnold Feil for example, have claimed that this song goes to a different, unnotated meter). The structural organization of “Im Dorfe” is that of a two-part poem which has been placed into a three-part musical form. This is made possible because Müller's first stanza is considerably longer than the second, allowing Schubert to break the text into three distinct sections. Although the musical form is in three parts, the content of the poem is still two-part. This means that the first stanza is more reflective. The wanderer is simply describing what he sees, thinks and hears. The second stanza features a shift from simple observation to spoken, first person declamation of the wanderer (e.g. “drive me away[...], don't let me rest[...], I am through with dreams[...]).

The introduction to “Im Dorfe” is not typical. It does not set up the key or give the listener any clues as to the melodic or motivic content that will follow (this introduction is very similar to Schubert's “Die Stadt” and achieves a similar psychological effect of the unknown). There is virtually no distinction between the introduction and the the rest of the song as far as the primary accompanimental figures are concerned. This means that the introduction proceeds on, undisturbed through the entrance of the voice (also similar to “Die Stadt”).

Since the introductory material does not effectively set up the key or provide any clues as to the melodic or motivic content, it must be interpreted in a different way. Aside from a few brief moments, this tremolo motive in the left-hand of the accompaniment is always present. It is not a great stretch of the imagination to interpret this tremolo as the literal “rattling of chains” or “sleeping, snoring people in their beds.” Similarly, the rhythmic consistency of the right-hand in the accompaniment can been viewed as representing the “barking dogs.” The question then becomes, what is the meaning of the absence of the tremolo motive at the arrival of the B section?

The B section (m. 20) represents the beginning of morning. Therefore, the townspeople are no longer sleeping, or snoring. This is the most intuitive reasoning behind why the tremolo motive disappears. Similarly, the beginning of the B section is the point in which the wanderer is no longer speaking of the dogs. Their chains are no longer rattling. This becomes more evident when, at the beginning of the A' section the dogs return, along with the tremolo motive.

Other interesting moments of text painting are found in this song regarding the tremolo motive. The tremolo action is relegated to the left-hand throughout the song. However, this is broken upon the arrival of m. 12. It is at this point that the tremolo and rhythmic block-chords of the accompaniment trade voices (quasi-stimmtausch). Why is this significant? It lies in the relationship between the text and the music. The music prior to m. 12 represents the sleeping townspeople. It can therefore be asserted that left-hand tremolo, in its low register, is the primary musical device that paints this picture. The arrival of m. 12 marks the division between sleeping and dreaming. The text, “dreaming of things they do not have” is, as mentioned above, elided with the arrival of a register shift and voice trading in the accompaniment. Just as the music of mm. 1-12 represent the sleepers, the higher register of the tremolo in mm. 12-17 combined with a reduction in dynamic level (piano to pianissimo) evokes a dreamlike state. This in one of the ingenious ways in which Schubert uses subtle timbre and register shifts to highlight the action of the text. Continuing with this line of reasoning, the disappearance of the right-hand tremolo motive in m. 18 is also worth noting. It disappears precisely at the moment when, “with early morning it is all vanished.” This is probably the most obvious instance of text-painting in the entire song.

Other moments of text-painting can be found that are not associated with the tremolo motive. An excellent example occurs in mm. 41-42. Once again the texture and rhythm of the accompaniment is altered and it is revealed, for the first time, that the rhythm has been significantly augmented. “Why should I linger among the sleepers?” is represented by the lingering, slow rhythm. It is also very important to note that, as was seen in “Letzte Hoffnung” and “Der Wegweiser” the disappearance of the walking motive signifies a moment of self reflection and questioned motives on the part of the wanderer. There is no walking motive in “Im Dorfe,” but the disappearance of the predominant accompanimental rhythm still signifies a moment of self questioning and repose. The walking motive in “Der Wegweiser” disappears as the wanderer questions himself, as if he has forgotten why he is on this journey. The slow rhythm and disappearance of the tremolo motive in mm. 41-42 of “Im Dorfe” occurs as the wanderer questions “why should I linger[...].” Just like “Der Wegweiser,” these measures allude to the idea that the wanderer has temporarily forgotten, or blocked out the sounds of the dogs and their rattling chains. The restatement of, “why should I linger among the sleepers” that occurs in mm. 46-50 is elongated musically. In doing so, Schubert is able to emphasize one final time the uncertainty and questioned motives of the wanderer. Finally, it is interesting to note that the loudest dynamic level in this song is only piano. Combine this with the pervasive simple and undecorated melody and an argument can be made that these elements are present in order to not disturb the “sleepers.”

Adding more generally to the performance choices mentioned above, the Peter Pears/Benjamin Britten recording compared with that of Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau/Jörg Demus it is clear that both approach the music differently. Pears, perhaps because he is not as technically proficient as Fischer-Dieskau, favors a highly inflected vocal style. He makes excellent use of the dynamics printed on the page and at times exceeds them for dramatic effect. Also nearly every instance of the grief motive is accentuated by Pears. Fischer-Dieskau on the other hand delivers, in general, a more subdued performance. This adds something to the subtlety of the text but at the same time some of the forcefulness and power of the text is lost. Regarding Britten and Demus, in general Britten's style is more “heavy-handed.” His playing is more forceful than Demus' and is a nice balance to Pears' highly inflected style.

A Schenkerian Look at Hugo Wolf's "In der Frühe”

Hugo Wolf’s song “In der Frühe” contains elements that contribute to both a sense of ambiguity and coherence, trepidation and fear, and hopefulness and optimism. The ways in which the tonality is brought out (and obscured) plays an important role in the formal organization of the song. This paper will explore, 1) the organizational methods that Wolf employs, 2) the ways in which Wolf creates ambiguity in the song, 3) the ways in which Wolf creates a sense of coherence (despite this ambiguity), and 4) how the above elements contribute to the satisfactory ending in C major. In the process it will become evident that these musical devices are intimately linked to the text of Eduard Mörike’s poem.

First, it is important to understand how Wolf has organized his song. Deborah Stein reads the piece as being in two different sections, designating the first page as the “ambiguity phase” and the second page as the “clarification phase.”* I will simply refer to these two sections as A and B respectively. From a harmonic standpoint it can be difficult to make any sort of connection between the A and B sections. The wandering harmonies and chromaticism of A appear to have no relation to the more predictable harmonic structure of B. My analysis will argue otherwise. Stein links the first prolongation of D (vocal line in mm. 6-7) to the final structural tonic C in m. 18. I have chosen to analyze the piece as two independent sections. It is my assertion that the prolongation of D in mm. 6-7 is short lived (not remaining active from mm. 6-17 as Stein claims) and it is therefore the cycle of intervals in the two sections that bridges the gap between A and B.

In addition, a simple ^2^1 line is not ideal. To validate Stein's idea of D (mm. 6-7) resolving to C (m. 18), scale degree 3 would need to make an appearance at a structurally important point in the song. The only instance of scale degree 3 that could possibly qualify as structural is in m. 2 (supported by a C-minor triad). However, I remain unconvinced. This and other points of coherence will be addressed later.

From a Schenkerian point of view, the organization of this song is much more about interval cycles than it is about structural descending lines. For example, the piano accompaniment of the A section clearly prolongs C minor (mm. 1-2), G minor (mm. 6-7) and D minor (mm. 8-9). Can the same be said of the vocal line in these measures? It is clear that the vocal line in mm. 1-2 is prolonging, or at the very least outlining, G minor. A similar things happens in mm. 6-7 which prolongs D minor, and in mm. 8-9 which prolongs A minor. With this in mind it then becomes clear that there is a slight disparity between the vocal line and the piano accompaniment. It does not justify a label of polytonality but, highlighting this disparity creates a fifth relationship between vocal and piano (i.e. the piano carries the “tonic” and the vocal the minor dominant). This fifth relationship is also brought out in the piano accompaniment alone, progressing from C minor to G minor to D minor. And, the primary motive of the song (ascending thirds) begins on G in mm. 1-2 and is later shifted to D a fifth away in mm. 6-10. The fifth relationship therefore unfolds “three-dimensionally” (see example 1). This is one way in which Wolf has chosen to organized the A section and the presence of this fifth relationship will become more significant when the B section is analyzed.

By tracing the vocal line of the A section an interesting organizational element emerges. Assuming that the song is in C minor for the duration of the A section, a ^2^3^2 upper-neighbor figure can be coaxed out at the end of the vocal phrases. That is, the D in m. 2 (mir), an implied E-flat in m. 4 (Kam-mer-fen-ster), and D in m. 9 (Nacht-ge-spenster). The final D in m. 9 is subsequently transferred to a different register (an octave higher) at the beginning of the B section. This register transfer is significant when thought of in terms of the text. If the A section is fearful and riddled with doubt, the B section is hopeful and optimistic. Shifting the melody up an octave (and changing the mode to major) represents this new found optimism. The downward pull exerted on the D that begins the B section is eventually resolved to the structural tonic in m. 18. I have chosen to analyze the A and B sections independently, although, an argument can be made for a ^2^3^2^1 line (not necessarily an Urlinie) that runs through the entire piece.

The organization of the B section is more straightforward than that of A. The narrator's mind begins to wander in m. 9 and beginning in m. 11 the key centers do the same. Beginning in D major, the song then progresses through F major, A-flat major and finally C major. This fact recalls the importance of interval cycles in this piece. Similar to the A section which is organized around fifth-relationships, the B section relies heavily on third relationships to get to the ultimate goal of C major. The counterpoint that occurs under these pitches is the interval of a sixth which itself can be viewed as an inverted third (see example 2). Since descending lines are not of primary importance in this song, any Schenkerian graph is going to appear jumpy and disjunct (particularly because there is frequent voice crossing between the vocal and piano accompaniment).

Where the A section employs unclear harmonic structure, the B section does the complete opposite. Wolf's harmonic language in the B section is consistent throughout. The progression I – #iio – IV – V – I dominates here and the only harmonic variety comes in the form of movement through the prolonged half-diminished seventh arpeggiation (D – F – A flat – C).

The preceding has outlined some of the organizational principles of the A and B sections viewed as independent entities. It is worth mentioning that there are also organizational elements that pervade the entire piece, from beginning to end. For example, up until now the presence of important third relationships has been relegated to the B section only. However, looking at the motivic content of the song it becomes clear that an important third relationship has been present all along (beginning in the first measure). The soprano line in the piano accompaniment begins on G, moves to an F sharp(lower neighbor), back to G and ascends through A-natural up a third to B-flat. A more detailed analysis of this element of the song will be addressed later. For now it is important to realize that this ascending third motive in the A section is also present in B, and that its presence in A foreshadows what is arguably the most important element in the song.

The previously mentioned disparity between the vocal and piano accompaniment of A has a counterpart in the linear contour of both of these voices; another element that pervades the entire piece. Close examination of the score reveals that every instance of the ascending third motive in the piano is countered, simultaneously, by a descending line in the vocal part (the only exceptions being mm. 3-5, and the sustained G in the closing measures of the vocal line). This aspect of the song once again points to the duality between trepidation and hopefulness. In the simplest terms, the descending vocal line represents trepidation and the ascending thirds in the piano represent hopefulness. These two elements duel throughout the song and it is only in the final measures that the ascents prevail.

Up until this point the discussion has been limited to the ways in which the A and B sections are organized independently and how some organizational principles are consistent throughout the entire song. Clearly this song is in a constant struggle with itself. It is simultaneously attempting to remain ambiguous and create a sense of coherence. I will first address how the song's organization creates ambiguity in terms of key center. As mentioned above, there is a fifth relationship between the vocal line and the piano accompaniment in the A section (mm. 1-2, 6-7, 8-9). This disparity makes it difficult to determine what specific pitch is being prolonged. For example, in mm. 1-2, the pedal C in the piano makes it abundantly clear that this is the important pitch. However, the vocal line contains no C! So, the challenge becomes determining which is the most important. A similar thing occurs in mm. 6-7. A G pedal in the piano is at odds with the clearly prolonged D minor melody. G is not a good candidate for prolongation in the vocal line (as it is only present as an embellishing leap from D after passing through C-sharp). Finally, the D pedal in mm. 8-9 duels with the prolonged A in the vocal part. These disparities subtly blur, and obscure the solidly grounded pedal points in the A section. It is not a case of polytonality but, at the same time it is clear that these measures can be analyzed as centered around two distinct and specific focal pitches.

In creating a Schenkerian sketch of this song certain problems arise. As mentioned, it appears that both “tonic” (piano) and minor dominant (vocal) are being prolonged in the A section. Determining the pitch of most structural importance in these measures is difficult. It is also important to note that the dueling ascents and descents between the piano and vocal lines makes it difficult to determine which should take precedence when sketching the piece. What is more, there is no clear (stepwise) Urlinie, either descending or ascending. It is my assertion that the vocal line D in m. 11 ultimately resolves to C in m. 18. Arguing that this D remains “active” throughout the B section is a stretch however, given that the song passes through multiple keys (some that do not contain a D-natural) before finally settling on C major.

The same element that created ambiguity in the A section also lends itself, in part, to what makes this section coalesce in a coherent way. The obvious pedal points traverse the circle of fifths beginning with C and moving to G and then D. This fact keeps the listeners attention and allows the ear to hear a firmly grounded tonic (although temporary). The compositional choice of moving from C in m. 1 to D in m. 8 is not coincidental. It all leads to Stein's “clarification phase” in m. 11. The prolonged D minor (piano) section ends with the narrator's “mind [beginning] to wander,” followed by a one measure link that employs an unusual resolution of a German augmented-sixth (belonging to D minor) at the downbeat of m. 11. The mode is altered to major here and it becomes clear that D major has been the goal of the A section material the entire time. Also, the competing tonic (piano) and minor dominant (vocal) that was prevalent in the A section are reconciled in B. That is, the piano and vocal begin to prolong the same pitch (i.e. D in mm. 11-13, A-flat in mm. 16-17, and C in m.18).

In addition to providing the necessary impetus that leads from C minor (m. 1) to D major (m. 11), the ascending fifth movement of the A section foreshadows the upcoming ascending third motion in B (an important point of continuity between the two sections). As previously mentioned, the ascending third motive is present throughout the entire song. It is not until the B section however that this motion by third really begins to take on a life of its own. The “three dimensional” nature of the fifth idea in A is expanded upon, employing a “four dimensional” ascending third motive in B. These four dimensions are outlined as follows:

1) All musical details are progressively “shifted up” by third (made clear by the changes of key signature). 2) The motives themselves (in the soprano line of the accompaniment) span the distance of a third. That is, F-sharp to A in mm. 11-13, A to C in mm. 14-15, C to E-flat in mm. 16-17, and E to G in mm. 18-21. 3) Each time the motive ascends it does so by the interval of a third, i.e. F-sharp in m. 11, A in m. 14, C in m. 16, and E in m. 18. This is different from the A section. In A, when the motive ascends it does so by fifth (i.e. from G in mm. 1-2 to D in mm. 6-10). 4) Each presentation of the motive begins on the third scale degree of what is the “temporary tonic.” These facts reinforce the idea that the primary structural force in this song is that of interval cycles/content and not structural descending lines.

The above mentioned elements illustrate how Wolf has created a simultaneous sense of ambiguity and coherence but, how do these elements ultimately lead to an ending in C major, and how is this final key convincing? The obvious fact is that the song begins in C minor and ends in C major. The route that the song takes to get from C minor to C major unfolds as follows:

C minor (m. 1) G minor (m. 6) D minor (m. 8)

D major (m. 11) F major (m. 14) A-flat major (m. 16) C major (m. 18)

The first three keys are related by fifth and the remaining are related by third. The A section takes advantage of tonic/dominant relationships in terms of the linear motion of the bass line. The link (m. 10) continues to emphasize D which is then transferred up an octave. The linear motion of the bass line continues throughout the B section creating a long-spanning arpeggiation of an F-sharp half-diminished seventh; simultaneously highlighting the importance of thirds in the song and leading the tonality back to C major.

C major is a convincing and conclusive ending for another reason. First, upon hearing the ending of the song, it could be argued that the A section was trying to get down to scale degree 1 (C) but never could. As previously mentioned, the vocal phrases of A end with a descent to scale degree 2 (D) twice. Wolf waits until m. 18 to finally settle on C and in doing so creates a sense of released tension. Where the A section fails to reach its goal the B section succeeds.

Finally, what conclusions can be drawn regarding the structural organization of the song? The following summarizes the answer to this question: 1) Given that the prolongation of D in mm. 6-7 is short lived, I see no real connection between these measures and the structural tonic in m. 18. 2) The song is clearly in two sections and it is more the cycle of intervals that unify them than any structural descending line. 3) The A section is structured around fifth relationships (three dimensional) and B is structured by third relationships (four dimensional). The two are not always mutually exclusive. These relationships are a feature that unifies both sections. 4) An argument can be made for a ^2^3^2^1 line (not necessarily an Urlinie) that underlies the entire song. ^2^3^2 is contained within A and ^1 within B. 5) Harmonic ambiguity pervades the A section. B is very clear harmonically. 6) There is a duality between the ascending piano accompaniment and the descending vocal line which represents the general mood of the text. 7) The quasi-polytonal arrangement of A is subordinated in B (i.e. the pitch being prolonged in B is the same in both the piano and vocal parts). 8) An ending in C major is aurally satisfying because the A section follows the circle of fifths and the B section leads logically back to C through an F-sharp half diminished seventh arpeggiation.

*Deborah Stein, Hugo Wolf's Lieder and Extensions of Tonality (University of Rochester Press, 1991), 193-202.

***If you are interested in seeing my Schenkerian sketches of this piece please leave a comment letting me know***

The Development of Fanny Mendelssohn-Hensel's Lieder

The nineteenth century was an uncertain time for women, particularly regarding their ability to pursue independent, professional careers. Women composers and performers during this time faced the same challenges that other potential women professionals faced. This becomes clear after reading some of the published literature from this time. The following is from Jean Jacques Rousseau's, Émile, published in 1762:

The man should be strong and active; the woman should be weak and passive[...] Woman is specially made for man's delight. If man in his turn ought to be pleasing in her eyes, the necessity is less urgent[...] He pleases because he is strong[...] She ought to make herself pleasing in his eyes and not provoke him to anger[...]

Little girls always dislike learning to read and write, but they are always ready to learn to sew[...]

It appears as if the only women composers and performers that achieved even mediocre popularity were those that had associations with male professionals in the same field. Take for example Alma Mahler, wife of composer Gustav Mahler, and Marie Moke Pleyel, briefly engaged to Hector Berlioz and later the wife of the Paris piano manufacturer, Camille Pleyel. Although quite difficult for a woman to enter the professional musical world, due in part to the ideologies of men such as Rousseau, many did find success as amateurs.

It turns out that being relegated to performing household work, as most women were expected to do, provided ample free time to hone their musical skills. As a result, during the nineteenth-century, women's homes were frequently becoming the venue for amateur evening concerts. The Mendelssohn household was such a place. Located on Leipziger Strasse in Berlin, the Mendelssohn house was a sprawling mansion that nurtured and cultivated the musical intellects of both of the Mendelssohn children. Fanny Mendelssohn, along with her brother Felix, were certainly encouraged to pursue music. Hensel had a more difficult time with this however. Her father, Abraham Mendelssohn, on the surface appeared to be supportive. A letter to Fanny from her father on her twenty-third birthday states, “you must become more steady and collected, and prepare more earnestly and eagerly for your real calling, the only calling of a young woman – I mean the state of a housewife.” This reveals that Felix's and Fanny's level of support is unequal Her father and brother were supportive only to a certain level. Aside from her house concerts she was never encouraged to publish her own music early in her career. Her mother, Lea Mendelssohn seemed to be the only one in the family that advocated her pursuing a professional music career.

Given all the constraints that were imposed upon her, Hensel's lieder has largely been overlooked by modern music analysts. Compounding the problem, her brother Felix received the majority of the accolades which further diminished her importance to the development of the German lied, even passing off some of her compositions as his own. Whether or not this was done intentionally is unknown.

In this paper I will be using Goethe's poems “Wer sich der Einsamkeit ergibt” (Hensel's “Harfner's Lied”, composed in 1825) and “Dämmrung senkte sich von oben” composed in 1843 as jumping-off points to illustrate the development of Hensel's lied style from the so-called Second Berlin School of German Lieder to her more “mature” output, the aptly dubbed Third Berlin School of German Lieder. Also of importance is to understand that Fanny played an integral role in the creation of this new style. As stated, this topic has been generally ignored by analysts and this paper will bring to bear some of the reasons why this shift in style occurred in the first place. Furthermore, analyzing the development of her style will cast a spotlight on her work and be a small step toward highlighting her often underrated music.

Aside from Felix, Hensel's direction in music was primarily guided by the advice and wishes of her father, her composition/theory teacher Carl Friedrich Zelter, and the giant of Weimar Classicism, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. Hensel's output of lieder can generally be broken up into two styles. The Second Berlin School of German Lieder typifies Hensel's early lied style from around 1820-1835. This is the style in which Zelter composed and taught his own students. Featuring strophic form and clear presentation of the text, this style typifies the Northern German lieder represented by Zelter and Hegel. Fanny began musical instruction with Zelter when she was very young so his ideologies were driven into her from the beginning of her musical life.

It should come as no surprise that Goethe was an advocate of the Second Berlin School. It was extremely important to him that the text be well represented (particularly when it is his poem that is being set.) The piano accompaniment was always subordinate to the text. The accompaniment is simple and not physically or technically demanding on the player. Often in the Second School, the piano accompaniment will double the vocal line, further emphasizing and focusing the listeners attention on the meaning of the text (Hensel's setting of “Erster Verlust” composed in 1820, is an excellent example of vocal doubling.) It should also come as no surprise that Hensel was certainly trying to please Goethe with her compositions. In a letter from Fanny to Felix on 28 October 1821 – when he was planning a visit to Goethe's home and Fanny was only 15 years old – Felix received a letter from her which makes it clear that Fanny admired Goethe beyond measure. She states, “when you go to Goethe's, I advise you to keep your eyes open and prick up your ears, and if you can't relate every detail to me afterwards, I will consider us ex-friends.” It is somewhat ironic that Fanny's creativity was likely stifled by her deep admiration for Goethe. Goethe wanted the music to be subordinate to the text and that was how Fanny was going to write it.

As stated above, the Second Berlin School features strophic text setting and subordinate piano accompaniment. More specifically, proponents of the Second Berlin School believe that strophic poetry should be accompanied by strophic music and that portions of text should rarely, if ever, be repeated as not to detract from the poet's work. It is generally accepted that Hensel's compositional practices of the Third Berlin School differ from those of the Second in the following ways: 1) Hensel modulates more frequently, earlier in the song and often to more distantly related keys, 2) a point of modulation occurs, most often, at an important word or phrase of the text and 3) climactic moments typically feature an altered chord (which may or may not belong to the tonic key) and are associated with an important word in the text that is being set.

Several factors were considered in determining which songs to analyze. “Harfner's Lied” and “Dämmrung senkte sich von oben” were chosen because they exemplify Hensel's shift in style beginning around 1835. They were also chosen because they help to illustrate the idea that, although Hensel's style certainly changed during this time, her transition was not black and white. There are frequent gray areas present throughout her career. For example, “Harfner's Lied” is through-composed. Based on what is known about the Second Berlin School, one might expect a strophic setting. Similar gray areas are present in, “Dämmrung senkte sich von oben,” composed eight years later and deep into her years in the Third Berlin School. This piece is strophic, when the opposite might be expected. Interestingly, her early and late lieder both employ extensive text painting. For this reason I felt it important to include several examples in my analyses. It is no surprise that text painting techniques were used throughout her career. That being said, the differences among her early and later years are certainly evident in the music, which will be addressed next.

The slow harmonic rhythm and simple accompaniment of “Harfner's Lied” allows for a straightforward declamation of the text (this song even employs mixed meter suggesting that the text, not the music, is the priority). The accompaniment does not get in the way or hinder the vocal line in any way. Furthermore, the recitative vocal style is in line with the conventions of the Second Berlin School. The piano accompaniment could be considered boring, but upon closer inspection it becomes clear that the accompaniment is intentionally sparse. Why? It allows for, and does not detract from, extensive text painting in the vocal line. The first line of text gives us a glimpse of the text painting to come in this piece. The text, “who gives himself over to solitude” occurs on disjunct pitches. This first line contains no stepwise motion in the vocal part. This creates the feeling that even the notes themselves are in solitude. With the exception of beats 1 and 2 of m. 2, all of these pitches are isolated from one another, lending support to the idea of aloneness as a recurring theme in this song. As is characteristic of the Second Berlin School, sparse accompaniment opens the door for more effective emphasis of the text.

As previously stated, the Second Berlin School generally advised against text repetition. The agony laden text of “Wer sich der Einsamkeit ergibt” however calls out for repetition of certain lines. Measures 10 – 13 signal a point in the piece where Hensel could not resist a text repetition. “Yes, leave me to my torment” is repeated and re-harmonized (this is something that appears quite frequently in Felix Mendelssohn's lieder as well.) Both repetitions feature stepwise descents that end with a downward leap to the word “Qual” (torment). Descending lines representing grief are not a new idea but Hensel affixes her own personal signature to it. The first appearance of the word torment occurs on the dominant in the key of G-minor. This dominant has been preceded by a French augmented sixth chord in m. 10 which creates tension leading to the word torment at the downbeat of m. 11. Instead of landing on the dominant, the second iteration of the descending vocal line ends on a fully diminished seventh chord at m 13. In doing so, Hensel raises the level of tension. Although the Second Berlin School generally advised against text repetition, this example seems appropriate. Instead of diminishing the meaning of the poetry, Hensel is accentuating it.

Another way in which Hensel emphasizes the meaning of the text occurs in m. 20. The text, “[...]lover creeps up and listens softly” is paralleled melodically. Following a rapid descending arpeggiation of a G-minor triad, the vocal line reverses and arpeggiates the same triad in ascending order. This occurs precisely at the same time the words “creeps up” are sung. This is not the last time in this song where text painting techniques are used with the words “creeps up.” Following a dominant prolongation at m. 22, the narrator's “pain creep[s] up on his solitude.” The text painting here is initiated by the fully diminished seventh chord at the downbeat of m. 23. This chord is held while the vocal line descends rapidly to the word “pain.” Following the sustained chord, these same pitches are re-articulated at the end of the measure. This signifies the narrator's pain creeping up on his solitude. The meaning of the text is emphasized because this re-articulation of the fully diminished seventh chord “creeps up,” or leads into, the tonic triad at the downbeat of m. 24. The same thing occurs at the end of this measure (although the chord has been inverted). In both instances the piano accompaniment is being used to accentuate the meaning of the text. Only after the narrator is dead will his torment and loneliness cease. Evident by the line, “when I am alone in my grave,” this creeping motive ends. This final line of text is perhaps the most striking example of text painting in the song.

Looking at the contour of the melody at mm. 25 – 27 one gets an idea of the striking parallels between text and music. Goethe has saved the most dramatic line of text for the end of the poem and Hensel treats her vocal line as a literal descent into the grave. The piano is sustaining a dominant seventh chord for two measures (25 – 26) which allows the listeners attention to be drawn to the descending vocal line. As the text indicates, the vocal line is literally alone at this point because the accompaniment has stalled. A nearly stepwise descent from E – F# in m. 25 to the downbeat of m. 26 represents this descent into the grave. Hensel could have made the F# the arrival point but instead it leaps to a C in m. 26 and then is finally resolved at m. 27. She no doubt felt it necessary to reiterate the vocal descent over the sustained accompaniment. This leads directly into a restatement of the disjunct setting of “solitude” previously mentioned in mm. 1 – 3. In this way, the narrator is left in the same state in which he began, alone.

The text painting in “Harfner's Lied” can be summarized in the following way: 1) solitude is represented by disjunct pitches in the vocal line (mm. 1 – 3, 16 – 17 and 28 – 29), 2) Torment and pain creep up on the narrator through the use of ascending and descending vocal lines (mm. 12 – 13, 20 and 23 – 24) and the re-articulation of chords (mm. 23 – 24), 3) The narrator being lowered into the grave is represented by a descending vocal line occurring over a sustained dominant seventh chord (mm. 25 – 27). The techniques of the Second Berlin School run through this piece. This is most obvious when considering the declamatory nature of the vocal, including mixed meter, and the relatively sparse piano accompaniment. Is has been illustrated that text painting lends support to the meaning of the text yet this is not unique to Hensel's early lieder. As we will see, “Dämmrung senkte sich von oben” also features pervasive text painting, but it is clear that by 1835 Hensel's style has matured. Her use of chromaticism, points of climax, modulatory schemes and the piano accompaniment after 1835 are more sophisticated and generally more complex than that of her early lieder.

The most noticeable feature of Hensel's “Dämmrung senkte sich von oben” is the heavy use of chromaticism. The predominant tonal area in this song is D major, but most of the time this key is obscured by chromatic harmony. Immediately, in m. 2, Hensel uses a secondary dominant (bII/V) which resolves to a chromatic half diminished ii chord in the second half of the measure. In this case the neapolitan is being used to emphasize the text “sank from high above.” Schubert frequently uses the neapolitan chord to portray a sense of sinking, or settling down, and Hensel certainly would have been aware of this fact at this point in her career.

Frequently, chromaticism in the vocal line in initiated by the harmony of the accompaniment. An excellent example of this is in mm. 9 – 11. A very unstable area of this song, Hensel uses the harmony and the vocal line to contribute to its ambiguity. Any sense of key is highly obscured and therefore eludes to the meaning of the text. The lines, “everything shakes with uncertainty” and “the play of moving shadows” were intentionally set in a vague and unclear way. It appears, beginning in m. 8, that the song has modulated to A major. This interpretation reveals the chord progression V4/2 – I – V/bII – N6 – ii half diminished 6/5, followed by what appears to be another modulation to F minor at the downbeat of m. 11 (other interpretations are of course possible). Therefore, vagaries in the text equal vagaries in the music. The concept of key center ambiguity is a hallmark of Hensel's later lied style. Frequent modulations, particularly those to a distantly related key, emphasize the general mood of Goethe's poem; mystery brought about by the arrival of twilight.

Interpreting m. 8 as a modulation to A major followed by a modulation to F minor at m. 11 illustrates a common theme in Hensel's later lied style. The theme of multiple modulations, and more specifically modulation to distantly related keys. Measure 8 is simply a modulation to the dominant, but m. 11, to the chromatic mediant. This emphasis on shifting tonal centers flies in the face of the Second Berlin School. Zelter and Goethe would most likely view the heavy chromaticism as an obstacle in the way of the text, focusing the listeners attention somewhere else. However, it is apparent that the opposite could also be true. It could just as easily be said that chromaticism in the vocal line draws attention to that line and therefore is not a hindrance to the declamation of the text. It is clear in this song that simple declamation of text has been replaced, but what is sacrificed in terms of textual clarity is made up for in the contrasting colors created by chromaticism.

Another quite striking element in “Dämmrung senkte sich von oben” is the heightened role of the piano accompaniment. Where “Harfner's Lied” primarily utilizes simple diatonic chord progressions with a slow harmonic rhythm, “Dämmrung senkte sich von oben” is composed with a thicker texture, quicker harmonic rhythm and an entire palette of chromatic colors. The most notable chromaticism is the secondary leading tone chords found in. mm. 12 and 15, something that is not found in “Harfner's Lied” or the majority of her lieder before 1820. “Dämmrung senkte sich von oben” marks an important place in Hensel's compositional development. Straying further and further away from the conventions of the Second Berlin School, in this piece Hensel has reached the pinnacle of her mature lied style and has finally found her own unique voice.

Another characteristic that is common in Hensel's lieder post 1835 is her use of a high note in the vocal line to signify an important word or point of modulation. The downbeat of measure 6 in “Dämmrung senkte sich von oben” is such a note. The high F that occurs on the word “high” coincides with an evaded cadence initiated by a cadential 6/4 in m. 5. Instead of resolving as expected to a V5/3 – I, the V6/4 resolves to a secondary dominant (V7/vi.) This is important because the F is the highest note in the song and the secondary dominant leads into the modulatory passage at mm. 8 – 11. Using the high F in this way is characteristic of Hensel's style during this time and is seen in her early lieder far less often.

The piano accompaniment from mm. 1 – 11 remains relatively consistent, primarily employing an eighth-note block chord texture. The texture is interrupted in m. 9 at the arrival of the afore mentioned area of “uncertainty.” Descending half-notes at the octave lead into disjunct motion in the left hand. The accompaniment at this point in the song is quite erratic, which makes the uncertainty of the previous three measures that much more important. What is the meaning of this sudden shift in texture? It is my assertion that the texture is another text painting device. The accompaniment in m. 12 is in direct parallel to the text. Following the accompanimental descent at mm. 9 – 11, the text is “a mist creeps slowly upward.” Upward is the important word here. Upon its arrival the left hand leaps dramatically upward spanning two octaves. This simple device ensures that the listeners attention will be drawn to the text. Block chord leaps continue at m. 13 and finally settle on the dominant at m. 16. Therefore, the text painting in “Dämmrung senkte sich von oben” can be summarized as follows: 1) using the neapolitan chord as a device to convey a feeling of sinking, 2) short modulatory passages featuring heavy chromaticism are used to convey uncertainty in the text, 3) using the highest note in the vocal line as a point of modulation, and 4) using changes in accompanimental texture to highlight some aspect of the text.

Text painting occurs in the majority of Hensel's lieder. What is important to understand is that the text painting is achieved in different ways depending on the time period in which the piece was written. The text setting of her early works typically feature a strophic form with simple and clear declamation of the text. Therefore, the text painting devices are typically less complicated and require less analysis of the harmony. In order to understand the text painting in her later work, it is necessary to examine her harmonies and chromatic passages more closely.

It is my hope that this paper has answered some questions regarding the differences between Hensel's early and late lieder, particularly how her style changed after the deaths of her father, Zelter and Goethe. It is also important to begin studying Hensel's lieder more closely. The ideologies of the nineteenth century have pushed Hensel's lieder into obscurity even though she is equally important to the development of the German lied as her brother Felix, and even Schubert. Not enough credit has been given in terms of her contributions to the genre of art song and hopefully this paper will inspire others to better understand and appreciate her work. In doing so, Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel may be considered equally revolutionary to the genre of art song, as her mentor Goethe was to poetry.


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